The Willis Tower in Chicago

Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
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Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz. Licensed to Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz. Licensed to Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz/Artefaqs Corporation
Photo of The Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois
Photograph © Wayne Lorentz

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The Willis Tower
Formerly:The Sears Tower
Formerly:The Sears Building

233 South Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois, The Loop 60606
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The grandest tower in a city known for its great architecture, The Willis Tower has served for decades as a mighty symbol of architectural prowess and the triumph of engineering.

Just a few years after pioneering the trussed tube construction that allowed the 100-story John Hancock Center to be erected a couple of dozen blocks away, the same architects and engineers came up with another revolutionary construction method: the bundled tube design. The tower is essentially a series of nine tubes, bound together. Think of it as a pack of cigarettes with each tube rising higher than the rest. The shortest tubes are 50 stories, the second set rises to 66, the third set to 90, and the final to 110 stories. At the mechanical floors are extra trusses which act like belts wrapping around the building and helping counteract the forces of strong winds.

The tower was born out of the need of the Sears company to consolidate its offices. The original plan called for a much smaller tower, but the retailer was eventually convinced to concentrate its employees from seven other buildings into the lower portion of the building while leasing out the rest to other companies. It is fortunate that Sears listened to the architects and developers, because it is no understatement to call the result one of the most important buildings on the face of the Earth.

As Sears' financial fortunes changed, it moved out of this building and to a squat office part in the suburbs. By 2003 Sears had let the naming rights to the building expire. It wasn't until 2009 that the Willis Group consolidated a number of its regional offices into this building, and gained the naming rights in the process.

Shortly thereafter, as part of a larger renovation of the "Skydeck" observation level, four small outdoor observation pods were added to the 103rd floor. The transparent glass "Ledges" were designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, the same architecture firm that designed the tower back in the 1970's. Each viewing platform extends out from the tower a little over four feet and is constructed from three layers of half-inch thick glass with a weight capacity of five tons -- two tons more than is called for in the city's building code. The ledges are retractable and placed on the west side of the building 1,353 feet above ground level.

Quick Facts
  • Construction start: 1970
  • Construction finish: 1974
  • Designed by: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
  • Cost: $186,000,000
  • Renovated: 1985 by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill at a cost of $25,000,000
  • Renovated: 1994 by DeStefano and Partners
  • Type: Skyscraper
  • Stories: 110
  • Maximum Height: 1,729 feet / 527 meters
  • Maximum Width: 195 feet
  • Maximum Length: 195 feet
  • Height to tip of west antenna: 1,729 feet
  • Height to tip of east antenna: 1,709 feet
  • Height to roof: 1,450 feet, seven inches
  • Height to glass ledges: 1,353 feet
  • Official stories: 110
  • Missing floor: 109. The building owners count the roof as 109.
  • Disputed floor: The mechanical penthouse for the elevators. Some buildings count this, some do not. Sears Tower does.
  • Total floor space: 4,560,000 square feet
  • Rentable floor space: 3,800,000 square feet
  • Weight: 222,500 tons / 445,000,000 pounds
  • Caissons: 114 in bedrock 65 feet underground
  • Elevators: 104
  • Double-decker elevators: 14
  • Escalators: 15
  • Observatory elevators speed: 18.2 miles per hour
  • Windows: 16,100+
  • Property size: 2.96 acres
  • Parking spaces: 160
  • Plumbing: 25+ miles
  • Electrical: 1,500+ miles
  • Elevator cables: 80+miles
  • April 6, 1973: Two women were hit by pieces of falling wood that broke loose from construction work on the 108th floor.
  • May 3, 1973: Topping out.
  • May 3, 1973: This building became the tallest building in the world, a title it would retain for 25 years.
  • May, 1973: This building opened to the public.
  • 1974: Construction ended.
  • 1974: The Sears Skydeck opened to the public.
  • 1981: Dan Goodwin climbed the exterior of this building.
  • 1989: This building was sold for $800,000,000 to AEW.
  • 1992: Sears moved out of this building to the suburbs.
  • 1997: This building was sold for $804,000,000 to TrizecHahn.
  • December, 1998: This building illuminated its antennae in Christmas colors for the first time.
  • 1999: Alain Robert climbed the exterior of this building.
  • September 11, 2001: The Sears Skydeck was closed after terrorists attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.
  • October 29, 2001: The Sears Skydeck reopened.
  • August, 2003: Trizec Properties surrendered the building to MetLife.
  • 2003: Ownership of this building was transferred to MetLife.
  • 2003: Sears' naming rights to this building expired. There was no company willing to buy the rights immediately, so the name remained Sears Tower.
  • March, 2004: This building was sold for $835 million to Jeffrey Feil and Joseph Chetrit by MetLife.
  • January 15, 2004: The Chicago Tribune reported that the Sears Tower would be equipped with cellular repeaters. This was to help cell phone users who have a hard time making and receiving calls in the tower because of its structure, and the fact that cell phone users inside the building can be a thousand feet higher than the nearest cell phone tower.
  • March 11, 2004: Jeffrey Feil and Joseph Chetrit purchased the Sears Tower for $835,000,000.00.
  • September 25, 2005: An investigation by Emporis determined the actual correct height to the main roof of this building is 1450 feet, seven inches.
  • 22 February, 2006: Rogue skyscraper climber Alain Robert tells Vancouver 24 Hrs that the Sears Tower was his favorite illegal climb.
  • May 23, 2006: A group of seven people were arrested in Miami for allegedly plotting to launch a terrorist attack on this building.
  • January 19, 2007: This building was sold for $385,000,000.
  • February 1, 2008: Several women walking by this building were shocked by electrical currents from the sidewalk. The stray voltage leaked from the system which automatically de-ices the sidewalk when it snows (a common device for large buildings in cold climates). The system was turned off until it could be determined what the problem was.
  • March 11, 2009: The Wall Street Journal reported that if insurance giant The Willis Group consolidates its offices in this building it would be renamed The Willis Tower.
  • March 12, 2009: The Willis Group announced it will move nearly 500 employees to the Sears Tower and rename it Willis Tower. It did not pay extra for the naming rights.
  • April 21, 2009: The Sears Tower signs on this building were temporarily covered by by Willis Tower banners as executives tried to figure out how many signs to hang, and where.
  • May 1, 2009: A plan was announced to add a glass floored outdoor viewing gallery to the observation level.
  • June 24, 2009: A plan was announced to give this building a $350,000,000 environmental facelift. The plan included the possibility wind turbines and greenery on the roofs, replacing all of the building's windows, and changes to the building's mechanical systems to make them more energy efficient. The goal was to reduce the building's energy use by 80%. However, earlier thoughts about painting the building silver were thrown out.
  • July 1 2009: Based on new signage, this building became The Willis Tower. The Sears Skydeck was renamed Skydeck Chicago.
  • July 2, 2009: The outdoor viewing platforms on the 103rd floor open to the public. Collectively they are called "The Ledge"
  • July 16, 2009: In a ceremony, the building name officially changed from Sears Tower to Willis Tower.
  • September, 2010: This building was named #10 on Chicago Magazine's list of the Top 40 Buildings in Chicago.
  • Architect: Bruce Graham
  • Structural engineer: Fazlur R. Khan
  • Bounding streets: Upper South Wacker Drive, Lower South Wacker Drive, West Jackson Boulevard, South Franklin Street, West Adams Street.
  • West Quincy Street was removed to make way for this tower. The developers purchased it from the City of Chicago for $2,767,500.
  • The original plan for this building was just 70-stories tall.
  • Before construction, models of the this tower with the rest of the city were built and tested in a wind tunnel at the University of Western Ontario.
  • The last steel beam put into place in the construction of this building on the 110th floor was signed by over 12,000 Chicagoans.
  • The building, itself, does not have a tunes mass dampener, which is common on large skyscrapers. But both of the two large antenna masts has one of its own near the top.
  • The building's exterior is black anodized aluminum. The windows are tinted bronze.
  • According to the Chicago Sun-Times, in 2005 a deal was in the works for CDW to move to this building, which included naming rights. The deal fell apart because the building's owners didn't want the word "Discount" on the tower.
  • The building has an average sway of six inches off center.
Related Video
Unveiling of The Ledge
The news conference for the unveiling of The Ledge at what was then Sears Tower.

Video courtesy of the Chicago Architecture Blog.

Other videos related to The Willis Tower:
Stacking Diagram
Did You Know?
  • This was one of the filming locations for the 1986 film <i>Ferris Bueller's Day Off</i>.
  • The white strobe lights at the top blink 57,600 times a day.
Tourist Tips
  • The view is much better at the John Hancock Center, but c'mon -- you HAVE to go to the Skydeck at least once.
  • Prepare to enter the building like you're at the airport. You will have to go through metal detectors.
Look For
  • The street sign at the corner of Jackson Street and Franklin Street declaring that corner Fazlur R. Khan Way in honor of this building's structural engineer.
Green Things
  • Plans have been announced to replace the building's 16,000 single-pane windows.
  • New gas boilers using fuel cell technology to generate electricity.
  • Modernization of the building's elevators and escalators to reduce energy consumption by 40%.
  • Recovering condensation and upgrading restroom facilities to reduce water use by 40%.
  • Solar panels on the 90th floor roof to heat water for restrooms.
  • Smart lighting systems that automatically dim when sunlight is available.
  • Construction of a pocket park at Wacker and Adams.
  • Possible installation of wind turbines and/or green roofs.
  • "I want to thank them [Sears] for staying in Chicago when so many are leaving."

    -Mayor Richard J. Daley, Chicago Tribune, May 3, 1973. 19 years later Sears would move to the Hoffman Estates.

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The Willis Tower in Chicago.  Photo by trevor young
Photograph courtesy of trevor young
The Willis Tower in Chicago.  Photo by Erick
Photograph courtesy of Erick
The Willis Tower in Chicago.  Photo by ronza944
Photograph courtesy of ronza944
The Willis Tower in Chicago.  Photo by john kovacich
Photograph by john kovacich
Your Thoughts

There are 54 comments.

  I really enjoyed my visit to the Skydeck on 103rd floor in the Willis Tower in Chicago! It is one of the most awesome buildings I ever been to in the nation. The tower has some of the world"s fastest elevators moving at a speed of 1600 feet per minute.I really like like the way it looks with it"s bronze tinted windows @ metal framing.I got to visit several other cities along the way .But Chicago was my favorite.I got my picture taken on ledge in Willis Tower3550? feet above the street level on Sunday.

William Scott Keen - Sunday, November 11th, 2012 @ 1:02am  

  As a Chicago resident, I went to the top of the Sears Tower twice. My son loved it, however it was very expensive and he found the movie to be boring. We were inside, there is no outer deck, and the view was not spectacular. I would take someone as a visitor, but there are so many more spectacular tourist attractions.

Tasha F. - Saturday, June 9th, 2012 @ 10:56am  

  Have been up there before and am going to for my birthday! Breathtaking and amazing. My personal Favorite building of all time. Still can't believe they changed the name. But people will always call it the Sears Tower!!

Ryan - Sunday, May 8th, 2011 @ 2:17pm  

   I grew up in Chicago since I was 1 year old, and every time I saw the Sears tower, it never ceased to amaze me. In spite of the coompetition from foreign countries, its greatness and structural integrity will never be surpassed by no one. It will always lead the way for the rest.

Marialena - Tuesday, December 14th, 2010 @ 4:55am  

  I am not from this great city, but I was lucky to visit Chicago last month, and I love it.

I love this building - Wednesday, September 16th, 2009 @ 4:56pm  

  Wow. A marvelous building. When I look up at it it seems that I have to flip over.

K D - Monday, September 14th, 2009 @ 9:16pm  

  It makes the Chicago Skyline awesome! I don't mind going back for another tour and another photo ;)

Aiza - Friday, September 4th, 2009 @ 11:25pm  

  The things I like the least are the color (black), it's efficiency, and the somewhat clumsy look about it. An awesome powerhouse, nonetheless though.

Bob Simmons - Monday, August 31st, 2009 @ 12:18pm  

  Sears Tower is an awesome piece of construction by mans engineering. I have always been terrified by heights,but now I plan toGO ALL THE WAY TO THE TOP!

taisha - Monday, July 6th, 2009 @ 12:39pm  

  I delivered rented equip. to some of the contractors that built the tower, and got as high as the 97th floor before the walls were put in; an experience I'll never forget.

Bill Donegan - Friday, May 1st, 2009 @ 12:43pm  

  This building still is a masterpiece. There is no other skyscraper in the world with a similar look. The two antennas are great eye-catchers too.

Oriah - Thursday, April 30th, 2009 @ 4:11am  

  As an Architecture Buff of Chicago, I think it is very wrong for Willis to try and think about putting permanent signs on this building. The Sears Tower always has been a public icon, and putting a sign on the building will make it less of a Landmark on the Chicago Skyline.

Brent Kampert - Thursday, April 23rd, 2009 @ 11:20am  

  It will always be the Sears Tower to me. I remember it being built.

Linda Kamp - Sunday, March 22nd, 2009 @ 8:46pm  

  it will alwways be the sears tower for me its not fair to change its name ..

liliana - Monday, March 16th, 2009 @ 9:39am  

  Visited Chicago many years ago for business. Took the opertunity to visit the Sears Tower. Awsome views. I was so impressed with the building and Chicago, I visited again with my wife. We took the opertunity to visit the building again, this time during the day. It has to be the most awe inspiring structure I have ever seen.

Mark Bell - Sunday, February 8th, 2009 @ 9:40am  

  Excellent symbol of the American Psyche of the 20th/21st century. The building emboddies our "bigger is better" mentality. But aesthetically, a finesse is missing. Again, this is very American..big, form n function. That is what we Americans are about. This building shouts America! Feb 2, 2009

Kevin R Hail - Monday, February 2nd, 2009 @ 6:59pm  

  This is building is awesome! It just looks "Proud". Very beautiful gothic feel to it. Love Chicago.

Jason - Wednesday, December 17th, 2008 @ 6:52am  

  I saw this building again, but this time, I was on the 8th Floor of Macy's State Street, where you can view the Christmas Tree in the Walnut Room, but looking down at the rest of the tree. Which I did, but then I went to the part of Macy's where you can look SW upward from the window, and view Sears Tower. The antennas were beautifully lit Green on the East Antenna, and Red on the West Antenna, so I got a picture of it, and hope it turns out with the rest of my pictures.

Brent Kampert - Monday, December 15th, 2008 @ 7:12pm  

  Personally, I think this building is great. You doubters might think it is bad until you go to the skydeck and view the entire city. It is breathtaking.

Kyle McLure - Monday, November 3rd, 2008 @ 1:14pm  

  wow amazing building, have to see it, looks into the heveans. proud to share the name.

Tony Sears - Monday, October 27th, 2008 @ 9:49pm  

  Is amazing what men could do, with a few dollars and imagination. Im architect and this building represents a lot for me, I really love it as hancock and windy city too.Iwas in the skyline and the view from there is espectacular, you people of chicago must be proud of it

Leonard trimarco - Tuesday, October 7th, 2008 @ 8:08pm  

  Every time and angle I see this building, I think wow, how beautiful it is. I really like seeing it when I'm at the NE corner of Ohio and Dearborn, and 1/2 a mile east near the NE corner of Grand and St. Clair, it's just so tall, and cool.

Brent Kampert - Wednesday, June 25th, 2008 @ 8:13pm  

  This building is really interesting for me,and I wish Iran could build one of these buildings,I hope to visit it.

Hamid Reza Atri - Monday, April 28th, 2008 @ 12:34am  

  It just takes your breath away ! The view from the observation deck will leave you with lots of info on Chicago as a whole. Chicago would not be Chicago without the Sears Tower ! Karen

Karen VZ - Thursday, February 21st, 2008 @ 8:21pm  

  Was,is,and will always be the Mighty Giant of Chicago.A landmark that will stand the test of time.A Giant among Giants.I rest my case...

Kevin - Wednesday, February 6th, 2008 @ 4:13pm  

  IMHO, the sears is still one of the greatest towering superhighs in the world. Think about it, Burj Dubai, inspite of its wasteful towering height still will not compare to the Sears in Square footage. The Sears Tower was there for created for effeciency and economy. Seems to me that Burj was created to just say hey we have the tallest building in the world. We have yet to see if there is a market for all the ridiculous building going on over there. Here in America we build up because the demand for it becomes evident.

Victor Gonzalez - Thursday, January 24th, 2008 @ 1:22pm  

  I love how it looks different from almost every angle

jack mobley - Friday, August 24th, 2007 @ 11:16am  

  i have been inside Sears Tower, loved it, still looks modern and awesome. im sad its no longer worlds tallest building, but it sure has a place in my heart!

George Baritakis - Thursday, August 16th, 2007 @ 10:55pm  

  i am from Chicago and let me tell you somthing it never gets old lookin at the Sears Tower God I love this city every body should come and see it you will what to move to Chicago

Cody - Wednesday, August 15th, 2007 @ 2:38am  

  Sear Tower is best builidng in the world, it got to be the tallest building in the world instead of taipie 101,i am interesting in skyscrapers and high rise building i live in basrah iraq where there is no more 7 stories builidngs

Blue Hawk - Sunday, August 12th, 2007 @ 12:00pm  

  Magnificent. Efficient. Broad-shouldered. The lobby renovation of the mid-1990s moved the tourists out of the main lobbies to the Jackson Street (south) side of the building, and it was a welcome change. I worked on the 74th floor of the tower for six years and it was a very pleasant building to work in.

richbh - Thursday, August 9th, 2007 @ 2:19am  

  SOM - what can I say. This building just screams masculinity in it's architecture! I love the simplicity of its looks and disign. The building looks like a city skyline within itself . Beautiful building! I give the Sears Tower six stars.

Digital Junkie - Monday, July 23rd, 2007 @ 1:02am  

  Growing up in Chicago in the 1970s, I fell in love with the Sears Tower. It came to symbolize everything that was Chicago. It still does, and I still love it. Now that I live away from the city, whenever I come to visit and see the Sears Tower again, it's like seeing an old friend.

David Shmuel - Sunday, July 22nd, 2007 @ 6:02pm  

  Ahhhh the Sears Tower one of the greatest towers ever built!!!! Bold and handsome this building makes chicago what it is!!! The building is a tube design of nine different segments (tubes) put together that gives the building its superior strength and sturdiness!!! The sears tower held the worlds tallest building title for nearly 30 years. thats, impressive besides its good looks and advanced arcitectual design of course.

Walter- CHI town - Wednesday, June 27th, 2007 @ 9:23pm  

  What a skyscraper should be. Strong, assymetrical, square-shouldered, and powerful. A brilliant and understated design.

Ben Miller - Wednesday, June 20th, 2007 @ 1:53pm  

  the design is minimal but stands out to the rest of the structure that surrounds it

dennis bosano - Saturday, February 3rd, 2007 @ 9:52am  

  This building is the best in the world. USA is the country that started it all and all of a sudden, foriegn countries decide to start building skyscrapers by cheating with un occcupyable (sp)spires. that is fony.

John - Monday, January 1st, 2007 @ 6:11pm  

  There is no art in it, It is just like a box of flip top cigars put on top of the other.....

shugo - Monday, November 27th, 2006 @ 12:35am  

  the building is nice. i live in iraq indarbnd city in kurdstan

shaxawan - Thursday, November 9th, 2006 @ 2:48am  

  The grand daddy of them all. Sears tower still reigns in Skyscraper history.

dave - Monday, October 23rd, 2006 @ 12:08pm  

  Sears Tower was the last supertall building constructed during the International architecture period, and SOM's interpretation of the style is remarkably bold and awe-inspiring. Sears Tower, alongside John Hancock Center and the Standard Oil Building, were the epitome of the Chicago skyscraper craze during the latter half of the 20th century -- a time when the Chicago economy was booming and tall buildings were a sign of commercial strength and success. Engineers sought different ways of emphasizing the city of "broad shoulders", and the desire for Chicagoans (esp. their businesses) to always be bigger, bolder, and better. Sears Tower is perfectly reminiscient of a thriving, innovative period in Chicago architectural history.

Randall Krause - Saturday, October 14th, 2006 @ 1:55am  

  Ahh the Sears Tower is amazing. One cant really get to know how HUGE this building is until they take a helicopter ride around it. not from the base oe even from the observation deck can one realize how huge and titanic this builing is!!

Kirby - Wednesday, July 5th, 2006 @ 11:31pm  

  Sears Tower is the greatest building ever built. It is the world's tallest building, no questions asked. Taipei cheated their way to the top, and as far as I am concerned, Sears is the tallest. This building is my absolute favorite, and always will be. No one can ever beat its strength and beauty.

apollo - Saturday, April 1st, 2006 @ 10:16pm  

  Greatiest Building Ever

Casey - Wednesday, March 15th, 2006 @ 9:53pm  

  The Sears Tower is what Chicago is all about. A strong building with bold shoulders. People from outside Chicago do not understand.

Tony Contreras - Saturday, March 11th, 2006 @ 8:59am  

  breathtakingly tall. but it lacks originality. then again, it was way ahead of its time.

james jacob - Monday, March 6th, 2006 @ 12:04am  

  The building is iconic. Muscular and no-nonsense -- perfect for this city.

Kevin - Tuesday, January 24th, 2006 @ 5:20pm  

  It looks like someone glued several buildings together. I think there is too much function and not enough form

kenneth Coleman - Saturday, October 8th, 2005 @ 11:48am  

  well first off us Illinoisans are proud that we have the tallest buiding in the US here...this is a very beautiful structure...and it stands out in the skyline all by itself... If you get the chance take the elevator ride to the top and see the fantastic view have no idea of what youre missing until you do!!!

Linda Wines - Monday, August 29th, 2005 @ 2:25pm  

  its design is bulky but still it was a inovative design for its time, with the "tube construction" as already explained, one thing for sure the sears tower has been always the tallest building until taipei 101 surpassed it (in hieght of last occupational floor)if it was for total hieght with spire or antenna the late North Tower(World Trade Center) would have been the tallest building in the world at 1,701' Sears tower extended to 1,705' I rest my case.

Wilbert NYC - Sunday, August 7th, 2005 @ 1:33am  

  Sure, it is tall, but i do feel its slightly misshapen, or put together wrong

GH - Monday, April 18th, 2005 @ 11:32pm  

  Makes a strong statement. Bulky, strong, a structure that does not seem to "put on airs."

Tony Lopez - Thursday, October 21st, 2004 @ 11:51pm